Getting Started: The Basics
thanks Sapper1

It's the middle of the night. You are awakened by the sound of sirens in the distance. You look at the clock; it's blinking. You get up, stumble thru the house and flip on the light switch...nothing happens. You look out the window and see nothing but pitch black everywhere. You turn on the tv and radio...both are out. You panic and grab the phone; it's dead too. So, NOW what do you do? ThInk about it. Without communication you will be deaf, dumb, and blind during an emergency or crisis.

OK, you know you need the ability to communicate, but feel overwhelmed and/or confused by the wealth of equipment and technical information. You don't want to get a license or spend a fortune on unnecessary equipment. So what do you do?

Take a few minutes to determine your needs. They are:

* Who do you need to be able to communicate with; family?, friends?, neighbors?, team/group members?
* How many people are involved?
* How far do you need to be able to "reach out" to talk to these people?
* What do you need to be able to listen to local fire, police, emergency services, news and weather? National news?

Once you've thought about these questions; don't get bent around the axle trying to buy expensive gear or everything all at once. Remember Keep It Simple.

Write up a plan. Break it down into stages and go one step at a time. Your communications priorities should be as follows:

1. Local Monitoring
2. Field Team Commo
3. Local Area Mobile Commo
4. Regional Commo/Monitoring
5. Long Range Commo/Monitoring

When purchasing equipment, do everything in each step before proceeding to the next level. Make sure everyone in your group is on the same level and that all their gear is inter-operable with all other team members.

Exercise the plan. Test the capabilities of the equipment you've obtained. Include in your testing the following (at minimum):
* Range
* Battery life
* Scheduled Contact Time and Frequency
* Everyones ability to effectively use the equipment.

STEP 1 Local Monitoring:
Your first priority should be to have the capability to monitor local events during a crisis or emergency. You need to be able to hear fire, police, search and rescue, EMS, military, news and weather. To do this you must have a scanner. A handheld is the most versatile, cost effective way to go. It can be used at home, in a vehicle or carried in the field in your backpack. The most important features to look for are continuous frequency coverage, plenty of memory channels (at least 200), high speed scan and search. If you live in a large metro area you'll need a scanner with Trunk-Tracking capability to monitor police and emergency services. The Uniden BC-245XLT goes for around $200 and will cover all your needs. You will also need a frequency list. Check with your local Radio Shack, a friendly ham operator or public service person.

Step 1 Cost:
Scanner $200

Step 2 Local Field Team Commo:
Now that you can listen to local events, you must be able to talk within your immediate area; say while in the field camping or hiking, the parking lot etc. Everyone should have a GMRS handheld radio ($140) with a high gain antenna for team commo. This will give you coverage within a radius of approximately 5-6 miles. *OPTION* For increased range you can add a mobile antenna and use the GMRS in your vehicle or put up a base antenna and use it at home for a base station.

Step 2 Cost:
Midland 75-440 MilSpec GMRS $140
2.5 .db High Gain antenna $20
Mobile Antenna $25
Total: $185

Step 3 Local Mobile Commo:
Now that you can monitor events in the local area and talk around the "neighborood", it's time to move on to the next level. You and all your team members need to be able to talk across your countywide area. This is necessary if several miles separate you and your friends, or if you're on the move...say during an evacuation or bug-out.

Some will tell you this stage requires 2 meter gear. You do not have to have ham gear for local or regional communications. Effective communications can be maintained out to approximately 20-40 miles with 11 meter (CB) radios. Don't waste your time with cheap AM only rigs. Buy a radio with AM plus upper and lower sideband. Have a radio shop peak and tune it and add 40 upper and 40 lower channels.

Mount one of these radios in every team members vehicle. Don't scrimp on antennas or microphones.The 102" steel whip is the most cost effective antenna and will put out the strongest signal. Mount it as high as possible on your vehicle. Use a Astatic RD-104E noise-cancelling, power mic. Ground everything properly and wire the radio straight to the battery.

Step 4 Regional Communications and Monitoring:
Once you're set up to talk mobile, you need to concentrate on setting up a base station for longer range (regional) contacts. If your budget is tight, you can use the moble rig from your vehicle. Just bring it into the house and connect it to an outside base antenna such as the I-Max 2000 5/8 wavelength 11 meter groundplane. Mount the antenna to a 36' tv push up mast that is grounded directly to a 8' copper ground rod. This antenna will cover a wide frequency range out of the box (26-29.000Mhz) and can also be used for shortwave receive. Add an antenna tuner and you can use it for 18-10 meter. While you're at it add a outside scanner antenna to the mast for long range receive.

Power Supply:
You will also need a power supply for emergency backup during power outages. Purchase a deep cycle marine battery and a 2 amp trickle charger. If you shop wisely, or can find one used, add a 30 watt solar panel to keep the battery charged. Put the battery i a marine battery box, then mount a couple of binding posts and cigarette lighter style power connectors so you can hook up your radios and scanner.

Step 4Cost:
5/8's wave groundplane antenna $90
scanner antenna $35
36' mast and clamps $80
50' RG 213 Coax $25
8' Copper ground rod $10
deep cycle marine battery $80
misc. connectors cables etc. $20
Trickle charger $25
Option: 30 watt solar panel approx $200


The goal of each neighborhood and tactical team should be to create a county wide emergency communications system that interfaces with the existing emergency comm infrastructure. It must do so in such a manner as to be able to provide clear and concise emergency messages to the state and national relay system without disrupting the existing system with compound, confused and / or extraneous transmissions.

Objectives include:
*A means and discipline by which individuals, familys, and teams within the local county can communicate directly with the county Net Control Operator; whose duty it is to interface with and relay information and SitReps directly to the Regional, State and or National network.

*Establish a county wide Rapid Alert System which can interface with the Regional R.A.S.

*Establish communications which do not interfere with those of neighboring counties; this will include chosing equipment and coordinating frequency / channel usage.

*Work with the individuals from the existing emergency communications network to establish the frequency that those persons will monitor dring an emergency, and the communcations protocols and message structure to be used to pass messages quickly, concisely, and with as little redundancy as possible.

*Adopt and implement standardized Signal Corps methodology, policies, procedures, admnistration, operations and equipment so that the CERT may implement efficient, effective integration and coordination of emergency communications.

Tactical communications are short range, ground wave (line of sight) commo used in the local area of operations between team members, teams, squads and thier base of operations and or Emergency Command Center. This also includes the Local and Regional radio networks. (Local is for the CERT Rapid Alert System. Regional is for the CERT's in all surrounding counties.)

Nomal range may be considered to be .5-5 miles for Intra/inter team commo, 5-15 miles for team to base of operations commo and up to 50 miles for base to base (regional) commo.

Base and mobile radio stations are grouped together for the purpose of message handling, SitRep relays and for the local Command Staff's use to coordinate, command and control the various teams within the local Area of Operation. These stations will adopt and use the Incident Command System of operations during a declared emergency.

Participating local units can issue sitreps to other local units, Division (Regional) and/or State Comm sections, dependant upon the State structure, using designated "public" sitrep frequencys and or alternate sitrep freq.s which are monitored 24/7. Routine or emergency sitreps will be relayed according to established Signal Corps SOP's which control use to net operations, and which shall, in case of emergency situations, allocate sitrep frequencys, tac-freqs, callsign designations and any other pertinent tactical information.

Local radio nets should consist of a minimum of 3 base stations per county, plus mobile radios in every vehicle, that are capable of contact with each other as well as the teams deployed in the field. These stations must be capable of setting up radio relay points if needed to maintain communications between the Emergency Operations Center and the various tactical and support teams. The base radio stations will operate on a 24 hour basis during an emergency or while teams are deployed. They will monitor all unit frequencys and gather Signal Intelligence from the local area as well as from the state and national level. At least two of these radio stations must be capable of maintaining contact with all the surrounding counties in the area. The most capable station in the county will be designated the Net Control Station.

NOTE 1: All CERT's will hold a weekly radio net to maintain contact with all team members and to issue and receive updates, status reports and SitReps to and from all the local units. They should also hold a weekly training net.

NOTE 2: Communications Equipment Operating Instructions:
All CERT's must have a CEOI to maintain opsec/commsec and to standardise operating procedures. These instructions should be kept in a laminated notebook and are to be carried by all comm personel. Security cannot be stressed enough. The potential use, disuse, or misuse of the CEOI can effect peoples lives, so great care should be taken to ensure that a CEOI does not fall into the wrong hands, and if that scenario should ever happen that an immediate replacement CEOI be issued to only those who have a need to know.

CEOI's should contain:
*A Channel / Frequency plan made up of Primary and Alternate frequenciy pairs to be used on a rotational basis.
*Net / Tactical Callsigns *Authenticator
*Brevity / Op Codes...for use by the radio net and tactical units during an activity, operation and or period of time (net period). These may be randomely chosen letter number groups of varying length (could resemble the 10 code).
*Any other instructions as needed.

Regional Networks:
Consist of several counties (CERT's) grouped together for mutual aid. There must be at least one station in each county that is capable of contact with all surrounding CERTs in the regional area. These stations will form the Regional Rapid Alert System and must also be capable of maintaining contact with the State Emergency Network so that SitReps may be passed up the chain of command. The regional RAS will operate on a separate frequency from the local CERTs and will hold a weekly regional net to dessiminate information or to send and receive SitReps from participating CERTs. In the event the regional RAS is activated the specified frequency will be monitored 24/7 per instructions given by the regional net control operator.

CERT Network Activization:
All CERT members are urged to monitor thier local media for breaking news. They should also monitor local fire, police and weather etc. via a scanner so they will be aware of any emergency situations within the local AO.

Should an incident, event or emergency take place; any CERT member can activate the local radio network by calling the net on the local CERT monitor channel (which should be monitored 24/7 by all team members). But, he should immediatly contact his commanding officer and the CERT Net Control Operator and advise them of the nature of the situation or incident. They will then activate the Rapid Alert System (see R.A.S / Alert Level instructions... ) and issue the appropriate SitRep / Alert Level; so that all team members can be notified as quickly as possible

CERT Training:
Basic training classes will be held by all CERT's on a regular basis. All CERT members will be trained to Team Radio Operator standards as established by the Signal Corps. (see TS here... ) Net Control Operators will be trained per the Comm Officer Guidlines.

It is imperitive that ALL equipment chosen for use by the CERT be compatable. Standardization is essential. A network of incompatable equipment is a useless system. Emergency radio equipment must be chosen based upon the function it is to perform. All equipment must have the same frequency/channel capability, adequete range and use similar power soucres. Team portable / handheld radio equipment should be of the same brand, make and model and should share the same features, charging facilities and be able to interchange battey packs.

Other equipment considerations at the local / county comm level are: ease of use, availability to the "general public" (ie no license requirement) and the ability to operate independant of outside power sources.

CERT radio equipment falls into 3 catagorys; Team, Mobile and Base. For our purposes GMRS is adequete for entry level tac-team commo and SSB CB is apprpriate for county wide and Regional commo. *NOTE* Some units may already have or choose 6 meter or 2 meter for local / regional use. This is fine as long as all members are trained and licensed in thier use.

Team Radio Operators Field Gear: See http:://

Midland 75-440 GMRS HT / Mobile mag mount antenna
"Broadband" 40 Channel AM/SSB CB / 102" Steel whip antenna
200 Channel Scanner

Base Station:
GMRS HT (from mobile) / Base "Repeater" Antenna / 20' mast
"Broadband" 40 Channel AM/SSB CB / Deep Cycle Battery Power Supply / 5/8 Wave Groundplane Antenna / 30' Mast
Shortwave receiver for monitoring national news and ERPN

A channel plan is developed to limit the amount of communications for each purpose, based on using 3-4 channels; leaving (or coordinating) channels for use by adjacent neighborhoods or counties for thier own communications.

Channel 1 Public emergency channel
Channel 3 Inter/Intra Unit Commo
NOTE: The first 7 GMRS channels are interoperable with FRS radios and should be used.

Channel 9 AM - Public Emergency Channel: Used to desseminate weather alerts and other pertinent information to the general public. Also for the public to contact the CERT to request aid and assistance during an emergency situation.

Channel 19 AM - Low power Mobile / Convoy Ops

Channel 38 LSB - Intra / Inter Unit Communications: Used as a Regional Call channel to maintain contact with other CERT's in surrounding counties.

Channel ____ - Search and Resque Channel
Channel ____ - Support Net: Evac/Relief/ Health/Welfare traffic

Signal Corps Tactical Bandplan:
The followng simplex frequencies are for Intra Unit Initial Contact only. Use them to contact local friendly forces when you are out of your Area of Operations. When calling for a contact on these frequencies Call for the "SC DX group". Do not use these freq.s for mission critical information. All groups nationwide are urged to monitor these freq.s 24/7.

Tac 1 026.160 LSB Low Call
Tac 2 027.385 Primary Local Call Channel
Tac 3 027.555 Primary Nationwide DX Call Channel
Tac 4 029.600 FM Simplex Call Channel
Tac 5 052.525 FM Simplex Primary Call
Tac 6 052.040 FM Simplex Alternate Call
Tac 7 146.485 FM Simplex
Tac 8 146.520 FM Simplex
Tac 9 462.6125 FM Simplex (Channel 3 FRS/GMRS)

To create, implement and regularly test an early warning system that will interconnect all local State and national groups; so that their membership can be notified of any emergency situation in as quick and consise a manner as possible.

The Local Rapid alert System may be activated by any member of the particular unit involved. But, every effort maust be made o follow the chain of command by notifying the local C/O, X/O or Comm. Officers as soon as possible.

The Regional or State R.A.S. should only be activated by the respective C/O, X/O or Comm Officer; and then, only after confirmation of the local SitRep with the Local Units C/O. If the crisis is of a Statewide nature it will then be passed on to the National level by the State Net Control Station. Established SitRep Protocols and OPSEC/COMSEC will be adhered to at ALL times.

The Rapid Alert Sytem shall consist of five elements.

1. Emergency Deployment Plan: Should consist of rendevous / rally points, evacuation routes, persons members are to report to and specific member assignments during the emergency.

2. Telephone Tree: Each member must have a contact list of other members to call or page. This contact list should include all members of the local unit as well as the Regional and State Commander, X/O and Communications Officer. The telephone tree will be used to notify all members of the activization of Communications Network and of their units mobilization.

Telephone Tree S.O.P.
1. EOC notifies Team Leaders
2. Leaders notify team members
3. Leaders report status back to EOC

1. Notify Team Leaders
*The decision to initiate the telephone call tree is made by the EC or NCO. They will contact the team leaders and advise them of:
*The nature of the emergency
*Any special instructions
*The telephone number or frequency where leaders can report results back to the EOC.
*If any leaders can't be reached, backups must be contacted.
2. Team Leaders notify Team Members
*Each Team Leader the notifies the individual members of his team, advising them of:
*The nature of the emergency
*Any special instructions
*Request them to monior the Local Emergency Net, the Eastern Regional Patriots Net and any other pertinent emergency frequencies.

3. E-mail: For issuing SitReps, SALUTE reports announcements, press releases. etc. All sensitive or mission critical information should be encrypted by the most secure means available.

4. Radio Networks: See CERT.

5. Messengers: Certain team members will be designated as messengers who are to ride through the neighborhood alerting the populace of any emergency. They will also be used by the unit commanders to relay information / orders between units in the event other forms of communications are inoperable or compromised.

Defcon 1. "Red" Highest Alert Rating...Incident i progress. Local, State and National Radio Networks in operation and monitored 24/7. All units mobilized and Emergency Deployment Plans activated.

Defcon 2. "Yellow" Credible Threat. The Rapid Alert System is activated.. Local, State and Nationwide radio networks operating in "open net mode" and monitored 24/7. All units at pre-assigned locations and awaiting orders.

Defcon 3. Probable Threat. All equipment packed and ready to go. All members stay in daily contact with team leaders via the Local Radio Network. LRN's make weekly contact with the Statewide Radio Network and issue SitReps to it as needed.

Defcon 4. Minimal Threat. All equipment available. Unit members maintain standard contact with team leaders through the weekly Local Radio Network.

Defcon 5. Standby...All members monitor news meda and all other forms of communication for developing situations.

Use the following format to send/receive messages during net operations;

CALL...Give callsign of the station your are attempting to contact. Then, your callsign. After the Net Control Station acknowledges you proceed with your message. Transmit information in the following order:
PRECEDANCE---Routine, Priority or Emeregency
TIME---Followed by date-time group IE: 012302-1830
FROM---Followed by call sign of person sending message if differant from that of the sender.
TO...The person or unit the message is for
Text of message---Encode and limit to 25 words if possible. Use the D.E.S., Brevity Code, SitRep and Salute format per MilComm SOP.

Communications is equally as important to your survival as planning and organization. During a disaster all forms of communications in current use may fail or be shut down by the government. Every group must set up a reliable means of commo in advance that is totally independent of outside control or power sources. Commanders who fail to implement tactical networks and comm plans will be unable to command, control or coordinate thier forces. They will be deaf, dumb and blind during a crisis.

Tactical Comm. Defined:
Tactical communications are short range, ground-wave (line of sight) commo used in your Area of Operations between team members, teams, squads and thier firebase or command center. Tac Com also includes the Local and Regional networks. Local is for the Rapid Alert System within your county. Regional is the counties surrounding your A/O.

Range of Operations:
Normal range may be considered .5-5 miles for team to team commo, 5-15 miles for team to base communications and up to 50+ miles for base to base commo.

Area Commanders use Tactical Communication to direct fire and movement, call for resupply, reinforcement, medevac etc., operate the local Rapid Alert System and to maintain contact with other units in surrounding counties.

Tactical Networks:
Consist of 3 base radio stations per county, equiped for SSB/Encrypted PSK-31 operation; plus mobile radios in EVERY vehicle. These base stations provide commo between the base of operations and the teams deployed in the field. They will also act as relay stations between the differant A/Os within the region. They will remain operational on a 24 hour basis during a crisis or when the teams are deployed. They will monitor all unit freqs and gather SigInt from enemy communications. They must be able to receive and transmit over long distance using self contained power sources.

Communications Equipment Operating Instructions- C.E.O.I-are contained in a small laminated notebook and are to be carried by all comm personnel. Every tactical network and team must have this to avod confusion and to maintain OPSEC.

The CEOI contains: 7 split-frequency pairs to be used on a rotational basis, net/tac callsigns with an autheticator keyset, codes in use for the net and units during an activity, operation or period of time, and other instructions as needed. Codes are randomely chosen letter number groups of varying length (may resemble the 10-code) Different codes are used for the same thing. All codes and frequencys must be changed often, even daily.

*NOTE* For detailed information about Communication Security procedures study:
CommSec hXXp://

Tactical comm equipment must be lightwieght, portable and have sufficient range to maintain contact with all team members and the base of operations. It must also be compatable with the base station equipment in use.

Band and Equipment Overview:
Several bands and modes are available that will meet the above criteria. UHF-High Band / VHF-Low Band and the Freeband.

UHF is strictly limited range, line of sight communications better suited for the urban environment. UHF signals penetrate buildings and metal clutter well, but the signal is attenuated or absorbed by dense folliage and heavy terrain.

FRS: Most groups are familiar with or use Family Radio Service equipment. FRS has 14 UHF channels, a maximum output of .5 watt, a fixed (non-removeable antenna) and a very limited real world range of about 1.5 miles.
FRS radios only use is for clear, simple to use communications within a team. They have very limted range, No privacy and being FM are very easily DF-ed. The so called "privacy codes" aren't. All they do is limit YOUR ability to hear others on the same freq. near you. Also, don't waste your money on encrypted units. Most use simple speech inversion circuitry which will confuse the basic moron; but wont slow down a smart 12 year old with access to common gear laying around the house. If "da man" is within range...encryption ain't gonna help you anyway.

GMRS: A better UHF solution for urban ops is the General Mobile Radio Service. GMRS has 23 FM channels (7 of which are compatable with FRS). The first 8 channels are for base/mobile/HT simplex use: 462.550, .575, .600, .625, .650, .675 (Emergency Channel), .700, and .725. There are 8 freqs. in the 467.000 mhz band that are for repeater input use only. Next, there are 7 interstitial channels located between the regular GMRS freqs. that are compatable with the first 7 FRS freqs. These are: 462.5625, .5875, 6125, .6375, .6625, .6875 and .7125.

Equipment is available with up to 50 watts output for up to 25 mile range. Most HT's have 15 channels with a 2 watt output. Range is approximately 5 miles. Midland currently offers a mil. spec. HT with all 23 channels and 2 watts erp. Other companies are offering HTs with up to 5 watts erp, 15 channels plus NOAA weather scan. Prices are around $150.

For increased range, All of these HT's can be upgraded with 1/2 wave 2.5 db gain whip antennas. For mobile operation, mag mount antennas are available with up to 5 db gain.

To set up a GMRS network for your AO that has approx. 6-15 mile coverage; take a 5 watt HT with a speaker mike and connect it to an outdoor antenna mounted 20-30 feet high. Use the best low loss 50 ohm coax you can find such as LMR-400. Keep the cable run 50 feet or less. For general coverage in all directions use a omnidirectional vertical such as a J-pole or one of the readily available commercial antennas. To increase your range further, and for a little more comsec, take a 10db gain 440mhz 4-element beam, cut it down for 1.1 swr on the GMRS band and turn it with a tv rotor. You could also build this antenna out of rigid copper pipe for almost nothing.

The FCC demands that you pay a $75 tax (liscense) to operate on GMRS. They readily admit that the purpose of the tax is to "catch scofflaws" who owe child support or the IRS. Due to the short range nature of GMRS, enforcement of the rules has been rather lax. Anyone can buy a GMRS rig and most are tossing the paperwork in the trash. No one will check to see if you have a liscense unless you interfer with another liscensed operator. So, NEVER interfer with a frequency when it is in use or another operator.

Also, the FCC issues a callsign with each new liscense. It is a 3 by 4 call that should be very familiar to the old Class D CB operators. A GMRS call will look like this: KFW-1234. So, if you don't have a call...make one up.

BE aware that the FRS/GMRS frequencys are in the same band used by local, State and Federal law enforement agencys and that they can monitor your commo in split second.

Heres where it starts to get interesting. VHF Low Band is preferred in rugged terrain beause LB signals are much less affected by hills or dense folliage than VHF (2-meter) or UHF. This is probably the reason why the military uses tac comm radios that operate from 30.000-87.975mhz.

6-Meter Low Band (50.-54.000mhz) is well suited for tac com operations at the local and regional level. In most areas of the country this band sees little use and has been all but forgotten by the Tech class hams who think that 2 meters is the only band. There is little interferance or overcrowding.
Typical mobile range is 40-50 miles. During years of high sun spot activity, occasional band openings allow base stations running beam antennas and power to reach out several hundred miles.

HT's for this band operate in the FM mode with an output of 5 watts. This is plenty of power for 5-15 mile range. Field expediant antennas for 6 meters are small, easily made and will increase the range even further. Mobile rigs such as the Ranger 5054 will operate CW, SSB or FM with 25 watts output. Most of the 6 meter HT's and mobile rigs can be broadbanded to cover the military frequencys which has many advantages. Quarter wave mobile whip antennas are approx. 4.5 feet tall and cost about $25.

ARRL 6-Meter (50-54mhz) Bandplan:
50.000-50.100 CW, beacons
50.100-50.300 SSB, CW
...50.100-50.125 DX suband
...50.125 Old DX SSB Call
...50.200 New DX SSB Call
50.300-50.600 All Modes
...50.400 AM Call
50.600-50.800 Digital
...50.620 Packett Call
51.000-51.100 West Coast DX

*NOTE* All freq.s above 51.10 are spaced 20 kHz apart on "even" channels.

51.500-51.600 Simplex (6 channels)
51.120-51.480 Repeater Input (19 channels)
51.620-51.980 Repeater Output (19 channels)
52.000-52.480 Repeater Input (23 channels except...)
..52.0-52.04 FM SIMPLEX
52.500-52.980 Repeater Output (23 channels except)
53.000-53.480 Repeater Input (19 channels)
..53.020 Simplex
53.520-53.980 FM Simplex

UPPER HF 12-11-10 Meters:
Being at the upper end of the High Freq. scale; these bands offer long range nationwide commo during daytime band openings and have excellant propagation in hilly, forrested terrain. Groundwave signals will cover 60+ miles base to base, 24 hours a day. During band opening ranges of thousands of miles are possible. First Europe and the North will come in then as the day advances, Latin America, the Pacific West and Austailia. These bands usually open about 1 hour after sunrise and stay up until around 9 pm local at night. A 25 watt, broadbanded mobile rig, such as the Ranger 2950DX or the old Uniden HR-2510 coupled to a 102 inch steel whip will have a range of approx. 35-40 miles. The mobile rig will work well for a 40-60 mile coverage base station with a power supply, set of meters/tuner and a vertical 5/8's wave antenna mounted 36' high. For a little more stealth and increased range, use a 3 element horizontal beam, a tv rotor and 40' mast. Most hams operate in USB mode on these bands while the freebanders tend to use LSB.

ARRL 10-Meter Bandplan:
28.300-28.500-Most SSB activity
28.500-29.699-SSB and FM
28.590-ARRL Emergency Net
29.510-29.590-Repeater Inputs
29.600-National FM Simplex Freq.
29.610-29.690-Repeater Output (Base)

Freeband-27.405-27.995 (Upper Band)
27.500 National MilComm Monitor
27.555 National DX Call Freq.

11-Meter-26.965-27.405 (CB)
27.385LSB-Ch.38-National Contact Freq.

Freeband-25.000-26.960 (Low Band)

12 Meter-24.890-24.990

Militia Signal Corps Tactical Bandplan:

The following simplex frequencies are for Initial Contact only. Use them to contact friendly forces when you are out of your area of operations. Do not use these freq's for any mission critical information. When calling for a militia contact on these freqs: Call "CQ for the MSC DX group". All groups nationwide are urged to monitor these freq.s 24/7.

Tac1 27.325 AM/LSB-Alternate Call (Channel 32)
Tac2 27.385LSB-Primary Local Call (Channel 3
Tac3 27.555LSB Primary DX Call
Tac4 29.600FM Simplex Call
Tac5 52.525FM Simplex Primary Call
Tac6 52.040FM Simplex Alternate Call
Tac7 146.485FM Simplex Call
Tac8 146.520FM Simplex Call
Tac9 462.6125FM (channel 3 FRS)

1 FRS/GMRS radio and spare batteries per team member.

Team Radio Operators Field Gear:
*1 Gear bag
*1 GMRS Radio with hi-gain whip antenna per team, 2 per squad
*1 200 channel scanner;
*NOTE-Option* The Yaesu VX-5r HT can replace all squad radios as well as do double duty as a scanner. It will give you the ability to TRX on 6 & 2 meter, 70cm (440) FRS/GMRS, MURS and many other freq's. It can also monitor HF shortwave as well as military, aircraft and all local, State and Federal agency freq.s
*1 Headset w/boom mike for radios
*2 Red light sticks and/or mag-lite with red filter
*1 C.E.O.I on laminated 3"X5" cards
*1 Notepad w/pencil
*1 Topo map of teams Area of Operation
*1 Mini-binoculars 12X25
*1 Manpack rechargeable battery system (7ah with various connectors to adopt to all squad equipment)

For further information study:

Tactical Single Channel Radio Comm Techniques study:

Also, study the Milcomm Organization, and Rapid Alert System threads in the comm forum.

For those who know nothing about tactical communications; read:

Basic Tac-Comm

CEOI's should contain:
*A Channel / Frequency plan made up of Primary and Alternate frequenciy pairs to be used on a rotational basis.
*Net / Tactical Callsigns
*Brevity / Op Codes...for use by the radio net and tactical units during an activity, operation and or period of time (net period). These may be randomely chosen letter number groups of varying length (could resemble the 10 code).
*Any other instructions as needed.

Communications Equipment Operating Instructions- C.E.O.I-are contained in a small laminated notebook and are to be carried by all comm personnel. Every tactical network and team must have this to avod confusion and to maintain OPSEC.

The CEOI contains: 7 split-frequency pairs to be used on a rotational basis, net/tac callsigns with an autheticator keyset, codes in use for the net and units during an activity, operation or period of time, and other instructions as needed. Codes are randomely chosen letter number groups of varying length (may resemble the 10-code) Different codes are used for the same thing. All codes and frequencys must be changed often, even daily.

this stands for Coded Encrypted Operatiing Instructions.
here in the Army when we use a CEOI or SOI

We change freqs on Single channel comms hourly. And its a whole lot more than just 7.

but when using TACSAT or FHM. its done at any where from 4800 to 19600 frequencies per second.

what will help is FM 24-35 I cant release that one for it is still classified . However a web search may prove fruitful.