The role of officers is to coordinate training and public relations, maintain order, provide for equipment and communications, provide leadership in tactical and operational activities, and to provide for all basic requirements necessary for unit integrity and proper function, including the assignment, development and deployment of tactical teams as appropriate to the role and function of the unit. Officers should make every effort to keep the unit organization and command structure as simple as possible; while providing for unit and command security, autonomous operations, continuity of command and structure/organizational flexibility.


Members of individual units will elect their own officers. Extreme care should be exercised to select only those who are competent, qualified, capable, and honest individuals, who have risen thru the NCO ranks and those who can effectively organize and lead their units. Prior military experience should be considered a plus.


"I (Name), having been duly elected as an officer in the (Blank) State Militia, in the grade of (grade), do solemnly swear/affirm that I will uphold the Constitutions of these united States and the State of (blank) against all enemies, both foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter: So help me God.


Leadership traits are 'characteristics' of leadership. They are part of your character. If you don't have these, work to get them. Because without them, you CAN NOT be a leader. All you can do at that point is be a pusher, not a Leader. A leader leads from the front, a nonleader leads from the rear.

Here are the characteristics one MUST have to be an effective leader.


1. Integrity - It is more than being honest. Integrity is doing what you ought to do, and NOT doing what you ought not to do, even if nobody else is around to see.
2. Knowledge - Know your job, weapons, equipment, your men, tactics etc. Always impart that knowledge to your men.
3. Courage - A leader possesses both physical and moral courage.
4. Decisiveness - A leader is unafraid to make a decision, and does not vacillate once the decision is made.
5. Dependability - Be dependable. Accomplish the mission.
6. Initiative - Think ahead. Do what needs to be done. Improve something that needs improving. Don't stifle initiative in your men! Instill it!
7. Tact - The 'tactful' leader is fair, firm and friendly.
8. Justice - Don't play favorites. Spread the good and bad out evenly (with respect to missions work parties etc.).
9. Enthusiasm - Show it; others will follow your lead.
10. Bearing - Bearing is how you carry yourself.
11. Endurance - Don't even THINK about quitting. Be strong both physically and mentally.
12. Unselfishness - Give credit where credit is due. Make sure your men are taken care of before you look to yourself.
13. Loyalty - Be loyal to your men and they will be loyal to you. Loyalty up and down.
14. Judgment - Weighing all the facts, along with application of the other 13 traits and making the best move.


1. Take responsibility for your actions and the actions of your men. No buck passing.
2. Know yourself and seek self-improvement. Tally your strengths and weaknesses,. Work on the weaknesses and develop your strengths.
3. Set the example - Live what you say because your actions will speak louder than your words.
4. Develop your subordinates. Strengthen them. Build them up physically, mentally and morally. They are the next generation of leaders; so develop the kind of leaders that you would want to have.
5. Ensure that a job (mission) is understood. Supervise it and carry it through to completion.
6. Know your men and look out for their welfare.
7. Keep everyone informed. Your men aren't mushrooms. Give them all the information you can.
8. Set obtainable goals for the team.
9. Make sound and timely decisions.
10. Know your job.
11. Emphasize Teamwork.


"Always mystify. Mislead and surprise the enemy if possible. And when you strike and overcome him, never let up in pursuit as long as your men have strength to follow, for an army routed, if hotly pursued, becomes panic stricken, and can then be destroyed by half their number."

...never fight against heavy odds, if by any possible maneuvering you can hurl your own forces on only a part, and that the weakest part, of your enemy and crush it. Such tactics will win every time, and a small army may thus destroy a large one in detail, and repeated victory will make it invincible." Thomas J. Jackson Attack the enemy at his weakest points. Attack only when you have a 95% probability of victory.

Strike when and where least expected.

Never set patterns.

Never hesitate to use your most powerful weapons.

Always outgun the enemy.

Always fight on ground of your own choosing.

Limit the length of enemy contact to 3 minutes.

Never voluntarily take the defensive position.

Never allow the enemy freedom of movement or to make decisions.

Do not allow the enemy to bring his weapons to bear.

Always prepare backup forces and vehicles.

Allow for unforeseen problems.

Never waste personnel or resources.

Troop Leading Procedure

a. Estimate the situation/analyze the mission per METT-T:
...What is the mission / objective? What are the desired results or outcome?
...What is his numerical strength, disposition, activity by day or night? What is his response time and avenues of approach? What are the locations of weapons, fieldworks, obstacles, minefields, and sentries; are their any high/low tech warning devices? Does he use flares or have night vision capability? If so, what do the various combinations of numbers and colors mean? What type of patrols does he put into the field? What is their average size and duration? Can he call in protective cover fire from artillery and/or aircraft? What is the attitude of the unit commander? The attitude of the NCO's and the line troops? How is their morale? Does the enemy have any weaknesses that can be exploited? What forms of commo does he have available and what frequencies are in use?
*NOTE...If objective is stationary, the recon should include a minimum of 24 hours of target surveillance. This is in addition to constant surveillance during the immediate 24 hours preceding the engagement.
...Make a thorough study of all available maps and photos. Make note of critical features as reported by recon patrols. Note positions for observation and concealment. Roads and trails. The locations of streams, their width and depth, current velocity and underwater obstructions, bridges and crossing points.
...Is there any other resistance activity being conducted in the area? Can you request support from other friendly forces in the area(s) of transportation, communication, or medical assistance? Have any other units conducted extensive patrols in the area? Would they be able to provide essential recon information?
...Plan the use of available time
b. Weather:
Check the weather forecast. What is the phase/intensity of the moon? What are the times of sunset and sunrise? What are the expected day and night time temperatures during the mission?
c. Organize men:
Choose a qualified second in command. Choose the smallest number of personnel essential to the operation. Seect reserves. Makes sure all personnel are in good physical condition and able to perform the mission. NO sneezers or coughers. If a night ops, make sure there is no one that suffers from night blindness. Do you have a medic? Do you need guides?
d. Select weapons and equipment:
What is the need or availability for any mission specific equipment/tools? Do you need night vision equipment, sniper rifles, wire cutters, etc? What is the availability of ammo, pyrotechnics, water and field rations?


a. Tell your selected personnel that a mission is imminent and the timetable for same. Give them a brief statement (SMEAC) of the situation and the organization of the patrol. Issue directions to all persons concerning: weapons, equipment, uniform, removal of identification, any need to draw special items, ammo requirements and rations. What type of camoflage is required. Who the second in command is. Who will accompany you on the mission. What time is set for assembly.

a. Study terrain map, sketch for: OCOKA

(1) Observation and fields of fire
(2) Cover and concealment
(3) Obstacles
(4) Key terrain
(5) Avenues of approach
b. Make preliminary plan...Determine the need for support fire, supply and logistics. Decide the troop strength of the patrol. Tentively establish and clear the main attack plan, also review contingency plans for any probable foul-ups and a last ditch plan to get the unit out of harms way in case it goes SNAFU. select weapons, determine the amount of ammo needed and any mission specific equipment.


a. Contact other friendly forces and/or representatives of other support units. If practical and possible, check to ensure adjacent units and friendly patrols are told of your route, objective and general plan of operation. This will help avoid accidental exchanges of "friendly" fire and resultant casualties.

5. Make reconnaissance

a. Ground
b. Air
c. Map
d. Photo
e. Previous Patrol Reports


a. Think over possible "Murphy Factors" and check them against existing contingency plans. If there is time make a rough sand model of the terrain for checking your plan. Include provision for care of the wounded. Consider assembly points. Make notes for Operations Order.


The patrol leader gives a terrain orientation to the assembled troops, then the mission instructions.


a. Rehearsal.....For a night patrol, rehearse once in daylight and once at night. Place emphasis on each individual knowing: the plan, the route assembly point, what to do upon enemy contact, what to do at the mission objective. Review how to orient on particular terrain features, by compass, by the stars, and know and when to fire their weapons at night.
b. Inspect the patrol.....Are all faces and equipment camoflauged? Are all sleeves and pant legs taped or strapped? Is there anything shiny showing? Check every canteen to ensure they are full. Have each man jump up and down to check for rattles or sloshing. Are fresh batteries in all radios and flashlights? Are all radios tuned to the proper channel? Check all compasses for accuracy. Synchronize all watches. Make sure all equipment is complete and in working order.
c. Conduct the Patrol / Mission
Get there...get n...get the job done...get out...get back!
d. Mission Report
Report the percentage of completion, observed effects of mission on enemy, Verify the accuracy of all previous recon data with personal observations. Share any new information with senior officers, and if need, with friendly forces in the area, with special emphasis on debrief by your own Intel officer.

SMEAC: The Five Paragraph Warning Order

The Warning Order is to inform the patrol members of an impending mission and to organize their preparation for it. The format outlined below covers the information necessary for a warning order. The detail covered in each section is determined by the Team Leader to insure proper coverage.

S-Situation-Friendly and enemy- what are they doing?
M-Mission-What is it? Describe it's goals and purpose. Include who, what, when and where.
E-Execution-Who does what and when? Location of Rally Points?
A-Admin. and Logistics- Needed equipment for conduct of mission, and dispersal among team.
C-Command and signal-Chain of command? Radio freqs and call signs for your team and nearby friendlies? Sign/Countersign?
Additional Notes:
1. Reconnoiter, pinpoint objective/enemy position/obstacles.
2. Determine weak points: designate support positions.
3. Assign objectives-identify the decisive point.
4. Determine main attack, supporting attack and reserve.
5. Assign breach, support and assault missions.
6. Designate fire control measures.
7. Coordinate direct/indirect fire to time of attack.
8. Control measures during attack.
9. Secure ground and air
10. Coordinate and reorganize.

1. Situation
a. Enemy Forces
_(1) Weather
_(2) Terrain
_(3) Identification
_(4) Location
_(5) Activity
_(6) Strength
_(7) Probable course of action
b. Friendly Forces
_(1) Mission of next higher unit
_(2) Location and planned action of units on left, right, front and rear
_(3) Mission and routes of adjacent patrols
_(4) Units providing fire support
2. MISSION: Who, What, When, Where, Why?
3. Execution
a. Concept of Operation
_(1) Scheme of maneuver
_(2) Fire Support (Type and Priority)
b. Mission of Subordinate Elements. (Who, What, When, Where, Why)
_(1) Squads/Teams
_(2) Special Teams and key individuals
c. Coordinating Instructions
_(1) Action at the objective (Include sketch)
_(2) Time of departure and return
_(3) Movement techniques
_(4) Route
_(5 Alternate Route
_(6) Departure/re-entry of friendly positions
(a) Departure
(b) Re-entry
_(7) Rally points and actions at RP's
_(8) Actions on enemy contact
_(9) Actions at danger areas
_(10) Actions at halts
_(11) Fire support
_(12) Rehearsals
_(13) Inspection
_(14) Debriefing
4. Service Support
a. Rations
b. Arms and ammo
c. Uniform and equipment each will carry
d. Method of handling dead and wounded
e. Prisoners and captured equipment
5. Command and Signal
a. Signal
_(1) Frequencies and call signs
(a) Within the patrol
(b) With HQ and other units
_(2) Pyrotechnics and hand signals
_(3) Challenge and password
(a) Regular
(b) Forward
(c) Running
(d) Codewords and reports
(b) Command
_(1) Chain of Command
_(2) Location of Squad leader during movement and at objective

Target Acquisition and Analysis

Targets are selected according to six factors known as CARVER.
C-Criticality-How important is the target to the enemy?
A-Accessibility-How easy is it to get to?
R-Recognizability-How easy is the target to recognize?
V-Vulnerability-How vulnerable is the target
E-Effects-What effect will the attack have on enemy operations?
R-Recuperability-How easy will it be for the enemy to repair/replace the target?

Principles of Security:

1. Dispersion--Avoid large concentrations of forces.
2. Mobility--Be prepared to move at all times. Equipment should be prepared in one man loads. Equipment which can't be carried must be cached. The area around the patrol base must be policed often.
3. Use Cover and Deception to confuse the enemy about:
* Your location
* Your troop strength, status, and equipment.
* Your intentions
* The time and place of planned operations.
* What you know about him
* How successful his operations have been.
* How good his intelligence is.
4.. Deny the enemy discernable patterns and signatures that tell him what you will do.
5. Safeguard all plans and records. Keep records to an absolute minimum, release information on a need to know basis, restrict the amount of information given to individuals who are exposed to capture, destroy outdated records, encode and encrypt all messages.
6. Other security measures:
* Make sure all personnel and equipment are well camoflauged.
* Keep units isolated from each other.
* Keep campsites clean
* Know where your people are going and how they will get there.
* Train in resistance to interrogation.


1. Know enemy's location and strength.
2. Select and brief units on primary, alternate and emergency routes.
3. Use local population to obtain the latest information o the enemy.
4. Place security elements in front, rear, and both flanks.
5.. Screen bivouac site thoroughly.